Friday, May 22, 2020
Introduction According to William (2006), gender can be defined in terms of social classes (man or woman, boy or girl) or factors associated to living the social duties of man or woman. In addition, they argue that gender identity is the feeling of one belonging to either the category of women or men. On the contrary, he perceives intersexes as lacking gender identity. Additionally, according to He also argued that, there exists a strong relationship between hormones and behavior which consequentially influence the gender identity of an individual. Thesis Gender identity, a process of self-identification in relation to sex, can be based on either the environmental factors or biological factors. Biological factors that may influence gender identity may include hormones and the genetic constitution of an individual while the sociological or environmental factors; the perception and knowledge the society has regarding gender. In addition, the above factors are said to influence the sexual identification and behavior of an individual. The study and discussion below tries to investigate the relationship that exists between the above mentioned factors. The interaction between hormones and behavior Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Hormones play a crucial role in the determination of behavior of individuals. This can be proven by use of researches and findings conducted by various scientists. First, according to William (2006), the amount and time of androgen exposure in animals greatly influenceÃ Ã the balance between the male and female reproductive behaviors. In addition, he argued that the direct effect of testosterone on the growing fetus i significant in the male gender identity and male heterosexual orientation. Furthermore, they related this hormonal influence from the gonads to be fundamental in the process of sexual differentiation. In summary, he argued that androgens, male hormones, are responsible for the development of the male or masculine behaviors while estrogen and progesterone basically impact the development of female behavior. Buchanan and his friends (1992) argued that, activation effects in the body are normally associated with increased hormonal concentrations which lower or elevate levels of moods and behavior. For example they proposed that, in nonhuman animals, estrogen is normally associated with reduced levels of excitement while progesterone is associated with higher thresholds. In addition, they proposed that, estrogen hormone stimulates more positive moods, and absence of estrogen propagates depression mainly in women. They additionally felt that, testosterone hormone found in males has the same effects as estrogen in women. Also in their study they found out that, adjustments in the hormone levels to which an individual is accustomed to; produces deviations in behavior. For example they argued that, during pre- and early adolescence, extreme hormonal effects on behavior are exhibited as compared to the later adolescence, or in adulthood. They attributed these effects to the fact that, teenagers at these stages have adapted to higher concentrations of hormones. Buchannan and his colleagues also argued that hormonal activities in the body produced an irregularity in behavior which may result to instability in the nervous functioning, with possible effects on moods and behavior. For example, Dennerstain et al. (1984) found that hormonal characteristics of the menstrual cycle was totally different in women who were experiencing premenstrual syndrome, or PMS, and women not experiencing this effect (cited in Buchannan, 1992). Biological psychology influence on the sexual differentiation and gender identity The biological psychology has been found to having greater influences on sexual differentiation and gender identity. This relationship has been proven by many scientific findings. To begin with, Swaab (2002) in his study, the Ã¢â¬Å"Sexual differentiation of the human brain: Relevance for gender identity, transsexualism and sexual orientationÃ¢â¬ , found that biological psychology greatly influenced the sexual differentiation and gender identity of an individual. According to the argument of Peggy (2003), science has discovered that males are genetically identified as having one X-chromosome and one Y-chromosome while females are genetically said to be having two X-chromosomes without a Y-chromosome. He additionally argues that the brain plays a significant role in sexual differentiation and gender identity of an individual. This is because, hormonal secretions is said to be greatly influenced by the brain which in the end result to sexual differentiation. According to William (2006) the gender identity of newborns is normally based on sexual difference clearly identifiable by the childÃ¢â¬â¢s external genitalia. He also argues on the fact that, the biological difference between male and female all lie in the mammal embryo which is originally sexually bi-potential.Ã For development of male testes, he generally attributes it to the influence of the testis differentiation gene, SRY, normally located on the Y chromosome. These testicular secretions are responsible for development of male genitalia and brain. Environmental influences on sexual differentiation and gender identity exhibited The environment arguably has a greater impact on the sexual differentiation and gender identity of an individual. According to William, environmental influences refer to the rearing assignments or practices that can be used to identify the gender of an individual. Additionally, Chodorow argues that during the first three years of development; gender identity is irreversibly set by the social situation created by the mother and father.Ã Due to these, girls tend to be more close to the mothers while boys tend to stick to the fathers which results to the development of the feminine and masculine characteristics as a form of gender identity. He further clarified that femininity is defined basing on the facts of care, tenderness and household chores while masculinity on the principles associated with separation and responsibility (cited in Suzanne and his friends, 1995). These consequently can result to one being sexually differentiated and identifiable as belonging to a certain gender . Conclusion In summary, both the biological and sociological factors have been found to constitute immensely to the sexual differentiation and gender identity exhibited. On the contrary, several psychological scientists have had various opinions on which factors outweigh the other. For example, William (2006) argued that, gender identification basing on the environmental factors which include rearing practices; are much better as compared to biological psychology. Their study which involved evaluation of psychological development of children born with varying intersex conditions; revealed a direct significant connection between gender identity and rearing practices. In addition, John in his book Ã¢â¬Å"Human sexuality and its problemsÃ¢â¬ argues that the biological psychologies vary greatly. He personally opposes sexual differentiation and gender identity basing on genetic makeup and external genitalia because; some people may have genotypes that do not agree with the normal classification of man and woman. For example, women with TurnerÃ¢â¬â¢s syndrome have one additional or less number of chromosomes on their genotypes which produce different characteristics and behavior as compared to the normal women. Another reason why he opposes gender identification basing on the biological psychology is on the fact that, genitalia are generally differentiated and also individuals may have one or more genital organs. For instance, in the case of hermaphrodites, individuals have both the male and female sex organs, genitalia, which can result to difficulty in sexually differentiating that individual or being able to tell the gender identity of that in dividual. On the contrary, Buchanan and his friends (1992) greatly recommend the use of hormonal methods to sexually differentiate individuals and identify their gender. They argue that hormone levels in the body influenced by the brain are the main regulators of behavior which can be used in determination of gender. For example they argue that testosterone hormone is highly found in males than in females which give them their masculine characteristics like development of beard, breaking of voice, development of muscles and growth of hair in the body. On the other hand, estrogen and progesterone hormones are usually found in high levels in females which also give them their feminine characteristics like breast development, smoothness and the ability to bear children. Therefore, whenever one has any of the above named hormones, he or she is classified accordingly irrespective of the genitalia or genetic makeup.
Sunday, May 10, 2020
Separation of Church and State By the middle of the 20th Century, the United States had emerged as a world power. It accomplished this through its leadership in defeating Germany and Japan in World War II. These two countries main objective was to enslave the world and destroy political, religious, and economic freedom. In Germany or Japan, anyone who disagreed with these goals, or was different was destroyed. This was a common practice in these two fascist countries. Unfortunately, at the same time of its emergence as a world power, the United States began to slip into a form of judicial fascism. This slide began when the U.S. Supreme Court began to abandon the religious principles on which this nation was founded. TheÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦(Barton, Americas p.3) The Supreme Court says that these mens intent was to keep religion and politics separate. John Quincy Adams, in a speech on July 4,1837 asked the crowd, Ã¢â¬Å"Why is it, that next to the birthday of the Savior of the World, your most joyous and venerated festival returns on this day?Ã¢â¬ He goes on to explain the important ties between the birthday of the nation and the birthday of Jesus Christ. He says that the Declaration of Independence was first organized on the foundation of Jesus mission on Earth, and that the Declaration Ã¢â¬Å"laid the cornerstone of human government upon the first precepts of Christianity. Adams stressed that the major impact of the Revolution was that Christian principles and civil government were connected in an Ã¢â¬Å"indissolubleÃ¢â¬ bond. (Barton, Americas p.17) Why is the Supreme Court blind to such evidence as this? John Quincy Adams was an extremely well educated man, so he is a very reliable source. Other Founding Fathers were very outspoken about Christian beliefs. John Jay, the first Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, and one of the men most responsible for the Constitution declared, Ã¢â¬Å"Providence(heaven) has given to our people the choice of their rulers, and it is the duty, as well as the privilege and interest, of our Christian nation to select and prefer Christian rulers.Ã¢â¬ (Barton, Americas p.8) Doesnt this tell our Supreme Court anything? ShouldntShow MoreRelatedSeparation Of Church And State1446 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesthe separation of church and state still necessary in the overall legal and social aspects of a modern society such as the United States? Research and history show that maintaining the church separate from the government is important for the ongoing success of a free and well functioning society. Separation of church and state is a political and legal doctrine which states that government and religious institutions are to be kept separate and independent from one another. Ideally, the church shouldRead MoreSeparation Of Church And State Essay1513 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesSeparation of church and state is a defined as, the understanding of the intent, and function of the Establishment Clause, and Free Exercise Clause. The Combination of church and state has been a topic that, many generations have struggled with for centuries. The first amendment of the constitution states that Ã¢â¬Å"Congress shall make no law about our religious beliefs, or prohibiting our free exercise of religionÃ¢â¬ If we put our faith in the constitution to define the founding fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s standpoint ofRead MoreThe Separation Of Church And State902 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesA Closer look at the Separation of Church and State in the United States Although Ã¢â¬Å"GodÃ¢â¬ is mentioned in the Constitution, this country was built upon the principle of separation of church and state. Despite this ideal, those elected into office: propose, pass, and deny laws based on their religious beliefs, completely disregarding the previously mentioned principle. The problem with that is that the country is so ethnically and culturally diverse that one religion representing an entire nation ofRead MoreThe separation of church and state1200 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe separation of church and state has been a long debated topic in the history of America. Although founded upon Christian ideals, the framers of the Constitution explicitly outlined the government to function secularly, in what is commonly referred to as the Ã¢â¬Å"Establishment ClauseÃ¢â¬ . When interpreting the Constitution in regards to religion, there are two primary philosophies. The first philosophy this paper will explore will be referred to as Positive Toleration. In gen eral, the idea of positiveRead MoreSeparation of Church and State701 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesSeparation of Church and State To understand LockeÃ¢â¬â¢s argument for the separation of church and state you first need to understand what the purpose of the government is. Locke stated that the government is supposed to support civil interest. These civil interests include property, life, and security. Therefore the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s job is to protect the civil interests of the people using force lawfully. Once Locke institutes the power of the government he develops three important assumptions vitalRead MoreSeparation Of Church And State1095 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe separation of church and state has been encountered and challenged several times in the Supreme Court, which was first mentioned by Thomas Jefferson. However it is not solidly stated in the Constitution on what is right or wrong and good or bad. This theory was modified from various elements from the Constitution essentially the first and fourteenth amendments. In the first amendment it is written Congress shall make no law respecting an esta blishment of religion or prohibiting the free exerciseRead MoreThe Separation Of Church And State1632 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages We are currently living in a time where freedom of religion is guaranteed in the United States. It has been since the first amendment of the Declaration of Independence was adopted in 1791. The first amendment prohibits the making of any law respecting the establishment of religion or impeding the free exercise of religion ( (Rotunda, 2004). This amendment established the separation of church and government that our country was founded on and still practices today. We as Americans are freeRead MoreSeparation Of Church And State1825 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesSeparation of church and state refers to the division of the relationship between religion and government. Various laws apply to different countries around the world about the separation of church and state. Some involve religion so much into their daily lives; it controls how their country is run. In other places, where it is not mandated as much, it becomes a problem in disputing what is and what is not right. The United States of America faces this issue as they struggle deciding what the meaningRead MoreThe Separation Of Church And State1594 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesdirection and control exercised over the actions of the members, citizens, and inhabitants of communities, societies, and states. While documents have been written to help the leaders of our country, there is constant debate over what changes need to be made. Some believe that the country is falling apart while others think minor adjustments need to be made. The separation of church and state is also a topic of debate. The question of what needs to be changed and where religion falls in all of this are alwaysRead MoreThe Separation Of Church And State Essay1641 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe separation between church and state is a debate that continues to grow with tension as the culture of America rapidly polarizes. A long-standing claim that America was founded on Christian doctrine is a common argument in favor of the church and state to remain tog ether, yet the most commonly used metaphor explaining what the Ã¢â¬Å"Separation of Church and StateÃ¢â¬ contextually means in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s terms is simply that government and religion should not coincide with one another in any capacity. Evidence
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
string(160) " avoid making mistakes and that as the war continued and that area of operations expanded sooner of later they would make a mistake and we would enter the war\." Pearl Harbor: A Day of Infamy By Chris Smith World War II altered the face of American history forever. This being a war the United States was greatly against and never wanted to enter, They were thrust into the war by a brutal attack from the Japanese on a Navel base located in the pacific ocean on the island Oahu in what is called Pearl Harbor. This attack on the base was a direct attack against the United States and gave America no choice but to enter the war they were originally so opposed to, or were they? Did the American government know that the Japanese were planning an attack? Did the United States allow the Japanese kill and wound several thousand Americans and sink and damage several naval ships all for a reason to enter a war our President longed to be a part of? Those questions along with several more have been raised by authors and thinkers throughout history. We will write a custom essay sample on Pearl Harbor: A Day of Infamy By Chris Smith World War II or any similar topic only for you Order Now These questions along with several more will be examined in depth throughout this writing. The thesis of this paper is as follows, Ã¢â¬Å"On December 7, 1941 The United States of America changed forever with JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s surprise attacks on the U. S. Navel base in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. These attacks thrust the United States into the middle of the Second World War and raised many questions and conspiracies pertaining to prior knowledge of the attacks and the plans that the Japanese executed. Ã¢â¬ First, the anticipation of war will be discussed and the events leading to attack. Secondly, the process that the Japanese went through will be discussed, from the year of planning to the secretive launch of their Ã¢â¬Å"striking forceÃ¢â¬ also their already obvious aggression displayed by the invasion of China. Another crucial piece to this puzzle is the Tripartite pact signed by Japan to make them apart of the Ã¢â¬Å"Axis powersÃ¢â¬ . Also the Japanese fleet and how they were utilized and coordinated in this attack will play a vital part in this description of this devastating attack. Finally the question will be addressed of whether we were aware of the attacks in advance and discuss the conspiracy theories surrounding this hot button issue in World War II history. Tensions between Japan and the United States increased greatly at the start of the military orientedÃ Showa era, as Japanese nationalists and military leaders used escalating influence over government policy, accepting the creation of aÃ Greater East Asia allianceÃ as part of JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s alleged Ã¢â¬Å"divine rightÃ¢â¬ Ã to unify all of Asia underÃ Emperor ShowaÃ¢â¬â¢s rule,Ã threatening the already-established American, French, British, and Dutch colonies located in Asia. Ã¢â¬ [i] Throughout the 1930s, J apanÃ¢â¬â¢s increasing expansion policies got them into conflicts with its neighbors, Russia and China[ii] . In March of 1933, Japan removed itself from theÃ League of NationsÃ because of international displease for its desire to conquer ManchuriaÃ and for their plans to establish theÃ ManchukuoÃ puppet government. On January 15, 1936, Japan also removed representatives from theÃ Second London Naval Disarmament Conference[iii]Ã because the United States and Great Britain did not want to grant theÃ Imperial Japanese NavyÃ (IJN) parity with their navies. [iv] AÃ second warÃ between the Japanese and Chinese started with theÃ Marco Polo Bridge IncidentÃ in July 1937[v]. JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s attack on China was looked down upon by the United States and the majority of the members of the League of Nations including Britain, France, Australia, and the Netherlands. The crimes of the Japanese during the conflict such as the Rape of Nanking[vi], definitely made relations with the rest of the world very strained. These states had several interests, as well as formal colonies, in the EastÃ andÃ Southeast Asia. JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s new power and its urge to use it raised great concerns, which threatened the control they had in Asia. In July of 1939, the United States got rid of its 1911 commercial treaty with Japan, but this effort failed to stop Japan from continuing the war in China, or from signing theÃ Tripartite PactÃ in 1940 withÃ HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s GermanyÃ and Italy, officially forming theÃ Axis Powers. Japan took full advantage of GermanyÃ¢â¬â¢s war in Europe to better its progress in the Far East. The Tripartite Pact promised each of the nations that had signed would have assistance if attacked by any country then considered neutral. This stipulation was directed at the United States, and gave Japan more power on the political stage. The Tripartite Pact now posed a great threat to the United States on both the Atlantic and Pacific coasts. Hitler and Mussolini threatening on the Atlantic Ocean, and the Japanese on the Pacific Ocean. The Roosevelt administration felt theÃ American lifestyleÃ would be threatened if Europe and the Far East were to come under control of a dictatorship. Roosevelt pledged to help the British and the Chinese; he loaned both money andÃ materialsÃ to both countries and promised that America aid would be enough to promise their survival of war. Giving this aid would start to move the United States from a neutral country to a country preparing for war. On October 8, 1940, AdmiralÃ James O. Richardson, who was the commander of the Pacific Fleet, forced a confrontation with President Roosevelt, resending his messages from previous transmissions toÃ Chief of Naval OperationsÃ AdmiralÃ Harold R. StarkÃ and toÃ Secretary of the NavyÃ Frank Knox, that Pearl Harbor was the be best place for his ships to be located. Roosevelt told Richardson that having that fleet in Pearl Harbor was a Ã¢â¬Å"restraining influenceÃ¢â¬ on the Japanese. Richardson asked the president if the United States was going to war. [vii] In RichardsonÃ¢â¬â¢s retelling of the account the president responded: At least as early as October 8, 1940, President Roosevelt believed that affairs had reached such a state that the United States would be come involved in a war with Japan. Ã¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬Ëthat if the Japanese attacked Thailand, or the Kra Peninsula, or the Dutch East Indies we would not enter the war, that if they even attacked the Philippines he doubted whether we would enter the war, but that they (the Japanese) could not always avoid making mistakes and that as the war continued and that area of operations expanded sooner of later they would make a mistake and we would enter the war. You read "Pearl Harbor: A Day of Infamy By Chris Smith World War II" in category "Essay examples" Ã¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬Å". [viii] In 1940, Japanese troops moved into northernÃ Indochina. The invasion of Indochina, along with the Tripartite Pact, their war in China, increasing troops, and JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s leaving the League of Nations made the U. S. embargo metal that was being shipped to Japan and to tighten down its foreign policy actions towards the Japanese and shut down theÃ Panama CanalÃ to Japanese ships. In 1941, Japanese troops invaded southern Indochina. On July 26 1941 the United States answered by freezing most Japanese assets in the United States and, then on August 1 1941, placed embargos on all of the oil and gas exports to Japan. Oil was the most important resource imported to Japan; at the time more than 80 percent of JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s oil imports came from the United States. To make sure they had oil, and several other vital resources, the Japanese had long been looking for other places for their supplies, specifically in theÃ Dutch East Indies. The Navy was sure any plan of action to seize the Dutch East Indies would bring the United States into the war and were very skeptical when it came time to agree with the other factionsÃ¢â¬â¢ plans for the invasion. The complete United States oil embargo changed to the naval view to support the expansion toward support for the invasion of the Dutch East Indies and capture of all of the oil fields there. After the embargoes and the freezing of all assets, the Ambassador of Japan in Washington and the secretary of State Cordell Hull had multiple meetings to try and find a solution to the Japanese-American problems. No solution could be found because of three major problems which were JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s alliance to Germany and Italy through the Tripartite Pact; Japan wanted total control and responsibility for Southeast Asia; and Japan refused to leave China. Feeling the strain from the U. S. embargoes, Japan developed a sense of urgency, they either had to agree to WashingtonÃ¢â¬â¢s demands and return to normal trade, or use force to gain access to resources that were available throughout the Pacific. Deciding that agreeing to WashingtonÃ¢â¬â¢s demands was unacceptable The Japanese decided to prepare for war with the United States, and seeing the opportunity of the forward basing of theÃ US Pacific FleetÃ at Pearl Harbor, the Japanese began to plan in early 1941 for an attack on Pearl Harbor. For the next several months, planning a simultaneous attack on Pearl Harbor and invasion of British and Dutch colonies in the South Pacific occupied most of the JapaneseÃ¢â¬â¢ time and attention. The Pearl Harbor attack planning came from the Japanese predicting that the United States would be drawn into the war after the Japanese attacked Malaya and Singapore. The intent of a strike on Pearl Harbor was to negate the American navy in the Pacific, in turn removing it from dictating operations against American, British, and Dutch colonies in the South Pacific. Planning in the beginning had seen a battle between the two powers would take place in Japanese waters after the United States Navel Fleet traveled across the Pacific Ocean, which would come under attack by submarines and other forces all the way across. The United States Fleet would be beaten in a climactic battle. A surprise attack presented a difficult problem for two major reasons. First, the United States Pacific Fleet was a major force, and they would not be a pushover to defeat or sneak up on. Second, for an air attack, Pearl HarborÃ¢â¬â¢s shallow waters made the use of standardÃ air-dropped torpedoesÃ useless. On the bright side, the isolation of the island of Hawaii meant that a surprise attack could not be stopped or countered quickly by forces stationed in the continental United States. A lot of JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s naval officers were very impressed with the BritishÃ Operation: Judgement, where twenty one old and outdatedÃ Fairey SwordfishÃ crippled half of theÃ Regia Marina. Admiral Yamamoto went as far as sending a delegation to Italy, which decided that a version of CunninghamÃ¢â¬â¢s strike on a much larger scale could force the United States Pacific Fleet to have to return to bases in California, which would give the Japanese time to put a Ã¢â¬Å"barrierÃ¢â¬ defense in place to defend the Japanese control of the Dutch East Indies. The delegation returned from Italy with information on how the Cunningham engineers devised shallow-running torpedoes. JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s navel planners were without a doubt influenced by AdmiralÃ TogoÃ¢â¬â¢s surprise attack that was executed on the Pacific Fleet of RussiaÃ at Port Arthur in 1905, and also they were influenced by U. S. AdmiralÃ Harry YarnellÃ¢â¬â¢s work in the 1932 joint Army-Navy exercises, which was used to simulate an invasion of the island of Hawaii. Yarnell, as the leader of the force that was attacking the island, placed his aircraft carriers northwest f Oahu and simulated an air attack. The umpires of the exercises noted that YarnellÃ¢â¬â¢s aircraft were able to impose serious Ã¢â¬Å"damageÃ¢â¬ on the defending team, who for 24 hours after the attack were not able to find his team. In a letter that was written on January 7, 1941 Yamamoto finally delivered a somewhat rough draft of his plan toÃ Koshiro Oikawa, then Navy Minister, who he also asked that he be made Commander in Chief of the air fleet to carry out the surprise attack on Pearl Harbor. A couple of weeks later in another letter, this time sent toÃ Takijiro Onishi, chief of staff of the Eleventh Air Fleet, Yamamoto asked Onishi to study the actual ability successfully carrying out an attack against the American base. After speaking withÃ Kosei Maeda originally, an expert on aerial torpedo warfare, and being told that harborÃ¢â¬â¢s shallow waters made an attack of this nature very close to impossible; Onsihi then sought the advice of CommanderÃ and planner Minoru Genda. Once Genda studied the original plan issued by Yamamoto, Genda said: Ã¢â¬Å"the plan is difficult but not impossibleÃ¢â¬ . During the next couple weeks, Genda made some changes to YamamotoÃ¢â¬â¢s rough draft of the attack, stressing the importance of the attack being executed early in the morning and in complete secrecy, using an aircraft carrier fleet and many different types of bombing. [ix] Although bombing the United States Pacific Fleet while they were anchored in Pearl Harbor would be a surprise, it also had two large flaws: The ships that would be targeted would be sunk or damaged in the shallow water waters of the harbor, which would mean that they could possibly be salvaged and possibly returned to duty (as six of the eight battleships eventually were); and most of the crews would be able to live through the attack, since the majority would be on leaveÃ which means they would be on shore or that most could be easily rescued from the harbor after the attack took place. Despite these concerns, Yamamoto and Genda pressed ahead. By April of 1941, the plan to attack Pearl Harbor began to be referred to asÃ Operation Z, named after the famous Z signal given by Admiral Togo at Tsushima. Throughout the summer of 1941 leading up to the attack, pilots were training in secret nearÃ Kagoshima CityÃ on the Japanese island ofÃ Kyushu. Genda chose this location because the geography and infrastructure of Kagoshima City presented almost all of the same problems bombers would have to overcome during the attack on Pearl Harbor. In training, each flight crew navigated over the 5000-foot mountain behind Kagoshima City and dropped into the city, maneuvering around buildings before descending to an altitude of 25 feet at the oceans edge. Bombardiers dropped torpedoes at some 300 yards away. The skimming of the water did not fix the problem of torpedoes hitting the ocean floor in the shallow waters of Pearl Harbor. Japanese engineers developed modifications allowing successful shallow water drops. The engineers work turned out to be a heavily modified version of theType 91 torpedo,Ã which turned out to inflict most of the damage to ships during the attack. Japanese weapon engineers also developed specialÃ armor-piercing bombsÃ with fitted fins and release shackles to 14 and 16Ã inch naval shells. These were able to pierce the more lightly armored decks of the older battleships still in service. On November 26, 1941, a JapaneseÃ Striking Force of six aircraft carriers (Akagi, Kaga,Ã Soryu,Ã Hiryu,Ã Shokaku, andÃ Zuikaku) left JapanÃ headingÃ to a predetermined position that was northwest of Hawaii, with the intention to launch its planes to execute the surprise attack on Pearl Harbor. A total of 408 aircraft were supposed to be used in the attack: 360 for the two attack waves, 48 on defensiveÃ combat air patrolÃ (CAP), including nine fighters that would serve double duty on CAP and the first attack wave. The first wave was going to be the major attack, with the second wave serving as a way to finish whatever objectives remained to be completed. The first wave featured the majority of the weapons to attackÃ capital ships; mainly the specially adaptedÃ Type 91Ã aerial torpedoesÃ that we discussed earlier. x]Ã The attack crews were told to pick the highest value targets such as battleships andÃ aircraft carriers or, if they were not available, any other high profile ships like cruisers and destroyers. The dive bombersÃ were ordered to attack ground targets. Fighter pilots were told to strafe and destroy as many grounded aircraft as possible to make sure they did not get into the air to attack the bombers, specifically during the first wave. When the planes fuel got low they were ordered to return to the aircraft carriers to refuel, then immediately return to the attack. Fighters were ordered to serve CAP duties when needed, especially over the US airfields where the United States planes were grounded. Before the attack began, two aircraftsÃ were launched from cruisers were sent to scout and gain information over Oahu and report on the composition of the fleet and their exact location. Another four planes scouted the area between the Japanese carrier force in order to prevent the task force from being caught by a surprise counterattack. [xi] The attack on Pearl Harbor actually took place before any formal declaration of war was made by Japan, but it was not the AdmiralÃ¢â¬â¢s intention to do this. He originally stated that the attack should not take place until at least thirty minutes after Japan had formally notified the United States that negotiations for peace had come to a close. [xii]Ã The Japanese tried to play by the rules of war while still making the attack a surprise, but the attack began before the notice could be delivered and translated. Japan sent the 5,000-word declairation of war (commonly called the Ã¢â¬Å"14-Part MessageÃ¢â¬ ) in two sections to theÃ Japanese Embassy in Washington, but translating the message took too long for it to be delivered in time. In fact, U. S. code breakers had already deciphered and translated most of the message hours before he was scheduled to deliver it. ). The final part of the Ã¢â¬Å"14 Part MessageÃ¢â¬ is what some call the actual declaration of war. While it did not declare war nor did it end diplomatic relations, it was viewed by a large number of senior U. S government officials as a very strong indication that neg otiations were likely doneÃ and that war was going to erupt at any moment. A declaration of war from Japan was printed on the front page of JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s newspapers in the evening edition of December 8,Ã but it was not delivered to the United States government until the day after the attack had already taken place. Ã¢â¬Å"The first attack wave consisted of 183 planes that were launched north of Oahu, led by Commander Mitsuo Fuchida. It included: ? 1st GroupÃ (targets: battleships and aircraft carriers) ? 50Ã Nakajima B5NÃ KateÃ bombers armed with 800Ã kg (1760Ã lb)Ã armor piercing bombs, organized in four sections ? 40 B5N bombers armed withÃ Type 91 torpedoes, also in four sections ? nd GroupÃ Ã¢â¬â (targets:Ã Ford IslandÃ andÃ Wheeler Field) ? 54Ã Aichi D3AÃ ValÃ dive bombers armed with 550Ã lb (249Ã kg)Ã general purpose bombs ? 3rd GroupÃ Ã¢â¬â (targets: aircraft at Ford Island, Hickam Field, Wheeler Field, BarberÃ¢â¬â¢s Point, Kaneohe) ? 45Ã Mitsubishi A6MÃ ZekeÃ fighters for air control andÃ stra fing ? Six planes failed to launch due to technical difficulties. Ã¢â¬ [xiii] Ã¢â¬Å"The second wave was 171 planes: 54 B5Ns, 81 D3As, and 36 A6Ms, led by LieutenantÃ Shigekazu Shimazaki. Four of the planes failed to launch because of technical difficulties. This wave and its targets comprised: ? 1st GroupÃ Ã¢â¬â 54 B5Ns armed with 550Ã lb (249Ã kg) and 132Ã lb (60Ã kg) general purpose bombs ? 27 B5Ns Ã¢â¬â aircraft and hangars on Kaneohe, Ford Island, and Barbers Point ? 27 B5Ns Ã¢â¬â hangars and aircraft on Hickam Field ? 2nd GroupÃ (targets: aircraft carriers and cruisers) ? 81 D3As armed with 550Ã lb (249Ã kg) general purpose bombs, in four sections ? 3rd GroupÃ Ã¢â¬â (targets: aircraft at Ford Island, Hickam Field, Wheeler Field, BarberÃ¢â¬â¢s Point, Kaneohe) ? 36 A6Ms for defense and strafingÃ¢â¬ [xiv] The United States suffered great losses; all eight U. S. Navy battleships were damaged, with four being sunk. Of the eight damaged six were raised, repaired and returned to service later in the war. The Japanese also sank or damaged three cruisers, threeÃ destroyers, an anti-aircraft training ship,Ã and oneÃ minelayer. 188 U. S. aircraft were destroyed; 2,402 Americans were killedÃ and 1,282 wounded. The power station, shipyard, maintenance, and fuel and torpedo storage facilities, as well as the submarine piers and headquarters building (also home of theÃ intelligence section) were not attacked. [xv] Ã¢â¬Å"Japanese losses were light: 29 aircraft and fiveÃ midget submarinesÃ lost, and 65 servicemen killed or wounded. One Japanese sailorÃ was captured. Ã¢â¬ [xvi] Ã¢â¬Å"After the attack, 15Ã Medals of Honor, 51Ã Navy Crosses, 53Ã Silver Stars, fourÃ Navy and Marine Corps Medals, oneÃ Distinguished Flying Cross, fourÃ Distinguished Service Crosses, one Distinguished Service Medal, and threeÃ Bronze Star MedalsÃ were awarded to the American military men who served in combat at Pearl Harbor. [xvii]Ã Also, a special award, theÃ Pearl Harbor Commemorative Medal, was later made and given to all military veterans of the attack. The day following the attack, Roosevelt gave his now famousÃ Infamy SpeechÃ to aÃ Joint Session of Congress, callin g for aÃ declaration of war on the Empire of Japan. Congress granted this request in less than an hour. On December 11 1941 Germany and Italy, honoring the Tripartite Pact, declared war on the United States. The United States Congress issued a declaration of war later the same day against Germany and Italy. Britain declared war on the Japanese some nine hours before the United States did, mostly because of the Japanese attacks on Malaya, Singapore and Hong Kong, and also due to the promise that Winston Churchill made to declare war Ã¢â¬Å"within the hourÃ¢â¬ if the Japanese executed an attack against the United States. The attack was a huge shock to the Allies in the Pacific Theater. More losses made the setback even more alarming. JapanÃ attacked the Philippines just a few shortÃ hours later but because of the time difference, it was December 8 in the Philippines. Just a few days after the surprise attack on Pearl Harbor, theÃ Prince of WalesÃ andÃ Repulse,Ã which were two British ships, were sunkÃ off the coast ofÃ Malaya, British Prime MinisterÃ Winston ChurchillÃ later said: Ã¢â¬Å"In all the war I never received a more direct shock. As I turned and twisted in bed the full horror of the news sank in upon me. There were no British or American capital ships in theÃ Indian OceanÃ or theÃ PacificÃ except the American survivors of Pearl Harbor who were hastening back to California. Over this vast expanse of waters Japan was supreme and we everywhere were weak and nakedÃ¢â¬ . [xviii] During the rest of the war, Pearl Harbor was very often used withÃ American propaganda to promote the war. Another huge reaction by America because of the attacks on Pearl Harbor was that most of the Japanese American residents and citizens were relocated to Japanese-American internmentÃ camps. Just a few short hours after the attack, hundreds of Japanese American leaders were arrested and brought to high-security camps that likeÃ Sand IslandÃ and Kilauea Military CampÃ located in Hawaii. Later, over 110,000 Japanese Americans, this includes United States citizens, were yanked from their homes and transferred to these high security internment camps in California, Idaho, Utah, Arizona, Wyoming, Colorado, and Arkansas. [xix] As was discussed previously discussed, was America aware of the plans of the attack? Several theorists donÃ¢â¬â¢t accept the view that Pearl Harbor was a complete surprise and these theorists always make clear that Roosevelt wanted, though did not say so officially, the U. S. to play a part in the war against Germany. A basic grip of the political situation of 1941 displays reasonable evidence Roosevelt invited, allowed, or even knew of the Pearl Harbor attack. Military historian and novelistÃ Thomas FlemingÃ poses the argument that President Roosevelt himself, had wished that Germany or Japan would make the first blow, but did not expect the United States to be hit as hard as it was in the attack on Pearl Harbor. [xx] In closing I feel that the United States was aware of this devastating attack and that my thesis of Ã¢â¬Å"On December 7, 1941 The United States of America changed forever with JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s surprise attacks on the U. S. Navel base in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. These attacks thrust the United States into the middle of the Second World War and raised many questions and conspiracies pertaining to prior knowledge of the attacks and the plans that the Japanese executed. Ã¢â¬ was well covered through out duration of this research. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â [i] The effort to establish the Imperial Way (kodo) had begun with theÃ Second Sino-Japanese WarÃ (calledÃ sei sen, or Ã¢â¬Å"holy warÃ¢â¬ , by Japan). Bix, Herbert,Ã Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan, 2001, p. 326-327. [ii] Japan had fought theÃ First Sino-Japanese WarÃ with China in 1894-95 and the Russo-Japanese WarÃ with Russia in 1904-05; JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s imperialist ambitions had a hand in precipitating both conflicts. [iii] The Second London Naval Disarmament Conference opened inÃ London,Ã United KingdomÃ on 9 December 1935. It resulted in theÃ Second London Naval TreatyÃ whic h was signed on 25 March 1936. [iv] Lester H. Brune and Richard Dean Burns,Ã Chronological History of U. S. Foreign Relations: 1932-1988, 2003, p. 504. [v] TheÃ Marco Polo Bridge Incident was aÃ battleÃ between theÃ Republic of ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s National Revolutionary ArmyÃ and theÃ Imperial Japanese Army, often used as the marker for the start of theÃ Second Sino-Japanese War (1937Ã¢â¬â1945) [vi] The Rape of Nanking was aÃ mass murder, andÃ war rapeÃ that occurred during the six-week period following the JapaneseÃ captureÃ of the city ofÃ Nanking, the former capital of theÃ Republic of China, on December 13, 1937 during theÃ Second Sino-Japanese War. vii] Joint Congressional Hearings on the Pearl Harbor Attack, Part 40, Page 506, Ã¢â¬Å"Conclusions Restated With Supporting EvidenceÃ¢â¬ [viii] Richardson, Ã¢â¬Å"On the TreadmillÃ¢â¬ , pp. 425, 434. And as recounted in Baker, Ã¢â¬Å"Human SmokeÃ¢â¬ , p. 239 [ix] Prange, Gordon,Ã At Dawn We Slept, Penguin Books, p. 25-27 [x] Peattie, Mark R. (2001),Ã Sunburst: The Rise of Japanese Naval Air Power, 1909Ã¢â¬â1941, Naval Institute Press [xi] Tony DiGiulian. Ã¢â¬Å"Order of Battle Ã¢â¬â Pearl Harbor Ã¢â¬â December 7, 1941Ã¢â¬ . Navweaps. com. Retrieved 2012-02-17. [xii] CalvocoressiÃ et al. ,Ã The Penguin History of the Second World War, p. 52 [xiii] Prange. p. 102 [xiv] Prange. p. 102 [xv] Ã¢â¬Å"Full Pearl Harbor casualty listÃ¢â¬ . Usswestvirginia. org. Retrieved 2012-02-17. [xvi] Ã¢â¬Å"Full Pearl Harbor casualty listÃ¢â¬ . Usswestvirginia. org. Retrieved 2012-02-17. [xvii] Prange. p. 454 [xviii] Ã Churchill, Winston; Martin Gilbert (2001),Ã Ã¢â¬Å"December 1941Ã¢â¬ ,Ã The Churchill War Papers: The Ever-Widening War,Ã Volume 3: 1941, London, New York: W. W. Norton, p 1593Ã¢â¬â1594, [xix] Prange. p. 632 [xx] Ã Fleming, Thomas (2001-06-10). Ã¢â¬Å"Pearl Harbor HypeÃ¢â¬ . History News Network. Retrieved 2012-02-21. Bibliography: Primary: Burtness, Paul, and Warren Ober. Ã¢â¬Å"President Roosevelt, Admiral Stark, and the Unsent Warning to Pearl Harbor: A Research Note.. Ã¢â¬ Ã Australian Journal of Politics History;. 57. no. 4 (2011): 580-88. http://web. ebscohost. com. proxy. ohiolink. edu:9099/ehost/detail? vid=4hid=113sid=e2c20699-8560-46bb-9e81-600cf903e4af@sessionmgr111bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ==, Retrieved 2012-02-21 Ã¢â¬Å"Attack At Pearl Harbor, 1941, Ã¢â¬â the Japanese ViewÃ¢â¬ EyeWitness to History, www. eyewitnesstohistory. com (2001). Retrieved 2012-03-01 Harriet Moore, (U. S. Army Nurse Corps 2nd Lt. , interview by Erica Warren, Ã¢â¬Å"Army nurse recalls attack on Pearl Harbor,Ã¢â¬ Ã North County Times, December 7, 2003, January 31, 2012, http://www. nctimes. com/news/local/article_85b4ea10-e9c2-5af7-8e74-deddc726aa5b. html. Conn, Stetson; Fairchild, Byron; Engelman, Rose C. (2000),Ã Ã¢â¬Å"7 Ã¢â¬â The Attack on Pearl HarborÃ¢â¬ ,Ã Guarding the United States and Its Outposts, Wa shington D. C. : Center of Military History United States Army Ã¢â¬Å"Damage to United States Naval Forces and Installations as a Result of the AttackÃ¢â¬ ,Ã Report of the Joint Committee on the Investigation of the Pearl Harbor Attack, Washington D. C. : United States Government Printing Office, 1946, retrieved 2012-02-08 US Navy Report of Japanese Raid on Pearl Harbor, United States National Archives, Modern Military Branch, 1942 Churchill, Winston; Martin Gilbert (2001),Ã Ã¢â¬Å"December 1941Ã¢â¬ ,Ã The Churchill War Papers: The Ever-Widening War,Ã Volume 3: 1941, London, New York: W. W. Norton, p 1593Ã¢â¬â1594, Joint Congressional Hearings on the Pearl Harbor Attack, Part 40, Page 506, Ã¢â¬Å"Conclusions Restated With Supporting EvidenceÃ¢â¬ Secondary Bix, Herbert,Ã Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan, 2001, p. 326-327. Prange, Gordon. At Dawn We Slept: The Untold Story of Pearl Harbor. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1981. Fleming, Thomas (2001-06-10). Ã¢â¬Å"Pearl Harbor HypeÃ¢â¬ . History News Network. Retrieved 2012-02-21. Richardson, Ã¢â¬Å"On the TreadmillÃ¢â¬ , pp. 425, 434. And as recounted in Baker, Ã¢â¬Å"Human SmokeÃ¢â¬ Peattie, Mark R. (2001),Ã Sunburst: The Rise of Japanese Naval Air Power, 1909Ã¢â¬â1941, Naval Institute Press CalvocoressiÃ et al. ,Ã The Penguin History of the Second World War, p. 952 Tony DiGiulian. Ã¢â¬Å"Order of Battle Ã¢â¬â Pearl Harbor Ã¢â¬â December 7, 1941Ã¢â¬ . Navweaps. com. Retrieved 2012-02-17. How to cite Pearl Harbor: A Day of Infamy By Chris Smith World War II, Essay examples
Wednesday, April 29, 2020
Worlds of Alfred Bester. Volume 4 Review Paper Essay on Worlds of Alfred Bester. Volume 4 Continuing the theme of how adult uncle chasing a pretty little babies (sm.Deniel Keyes, Mad Maro), I was advised by Alfred Besters story Star light, star early The protagonist quirky headmaster. hunting for a boy who wrote an essay My konikuly. The motives of our pedo-bear seem rather strange and worrisome for the mental health of the patient, as well as unhealthy speculation why, in fact, he wants young boys. But the patient explains his interest in banal a thirst for money and power. So what is written in the My konikulah? And in them the little boy Stuart Buchanan told about his friends that great inventors, possess telepathy, and cooking using Plancks equation. That hunts school director for Stewart, his friends and their unusual abilities. Downright obsessed with this idea. The story is short and very dynamic, literally feel manic obsession with which the protagonist passes family for a family with the last name Buchanan, in search of Stewart. And Stewart the boy does not miss, and somehow managed to escape from all We will write a custom essay sample on Worlds of Alfred Bester. Volume 4 Review specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Worlds of Alfred Bester. Volume 4 Review specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Worlds of Alfred Bester. Volume 4 Review specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer The story of Star light, star early very lively, strong and interesting fiction.. And it is this kind of like I love most when through a fantastic product that fiction that feel can not per gram. A short volume as much as is necessary, an interesting exposition and attractive in its frikovosti heroes. Also, do not often see the story from the villain face. The story of Star light, star early can be seen, and so, and that, twisting like a curious whether a toy, or part of a larger, unknown mechanism. I thought he was very accurate and organic fusion of science-fiction and ancient tales. Narrative, where the monsters under the bed to get along with the special theory of relativity that is, . Work through realistic, as well as all of our fabulous life Read the story of Alfred Bester: The asterisk bright star early
Friday, March 20, 2020
Argumentative Essay Topics Argumentative Essay Topics Argumentative Essay Topics Writing an argumentative essay refers to the process of reasoning by advancing arguments. However, it doesn't mean that you should write an essay with raises voices and heats tempers. On no account do this! Argumentative essay writing is the product of careful research and thoughtful consideration of all aspects that one can acquire about the subject. The goal of argumentative essay writing is to teach you how to think objectively and logically. Argumentative essay writing demands the writer to examine the arguments by checking them with the strength of the reasons which hold such arguments. Argumentative essay writing should present a dialog within the essay itself. The writer should examine several sides of the subject and demonstrate why the chosen side is the most problematic, interesting, or logically correct.Ã Writing an argumentative essay is similar to persuasive essay writing. Argumentative persuasive essay topics need to be aimed at persuading the reader to accept writer's position on the subject. It is rather a difficult task, but you must achieve it. The second task is to explain why you've adhered to that position. The secondary goal recognizes the fact that it is a difficult objective to persuade, but that at least you can explain your position. In short, it is a dialog between you and the readers. In this dialog, you should introduce the subject, make a claim, discuss necessary background information, and then present the evidence for the position. Make an outline to organize your ideas and essay writing better. Introduction paragraph should present a brief explanation of the question or problem, justifying its importance. It should also contain thesis statement of the position you defend. Body paragraphs present evidence for your opinion. Include as much information as will be needed to support your point of view. Present the opposite points of view and the evidence or reasoning behind the other perspectives. You shouldn't avoid other points of view, their presence helps you to gain understanding from the readers. Using evidence and reasoning you will explain why the opposition's perspective is not valid. Conclusion restates original position and thesis statement. While writing an essay, you should understand the difference between argument and point of view. Yes, it is true that all claims start out as opinions. At first sight, it may seem that argumentative essay is simply asking you to write down your opinion. The most considerable difference is that argument should present a claim supported by reasoning and evidence which persuades your reader that the thesis of your essay writing is a valid one.Ã An opinion is a statement that is not supported by logic or evidence. Custom Argumentative Essay Cannot decide on the topic for your argumentative essay?Ã Not a problem!Ã is available 24/7 to assist you with argumentative essay writing!Ã It is so easy to be our clients because our prices are reasonable, our writers are experienced, and we are never late with delivery!Ã We provide you with custom written papers only!
Wednesday, March 4, 2020
Secondary Citations in APA, Chicago, and MLA - Proofed Secondary Citations in APA, Chicago, and MLA Referencing is a fundamental part of academic writing. Sometimes, though, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll come across something that you want to use in your work, only to find that you canÃ¢â¬â¢t access the original source. This is when secondary citations come into play. What Are Secondary Citations? We use secondary citations to cite something weÃ¢â¬â¢ve read about elsewhere when the original text is unavailable. You might, for instance, come across a statistic in an article, but then discover that the book it was taken from is out of print. Using a secondary citation- i.e., citing the source in which the unavailable text is cited- will let you use the information required despite not having access to the original source. With all of the referencing systems listed below, however, this approach is best reserved as a last resort. Make sure to check that the source is really unavailable before using a secondary citation! Ask a librarian if you need help. They have magical book-finding powers. Secondary Citations in APA With APA referencing, secondary citations are indicated using the phrase Ã¢â¬Å"as cited inÃ¢â¬ in the in-text citation. The citation should also include the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s name and year of publication for the text where you found the inaccessible source referenced: According to Charles (as cited in Maconie, 2013), funk and soul music are fundamental aspects of U.S. culture. In the reference list, you should provide full publication detail for the source youÃ¢â¬â¢ve been able to access. In relation to the example above, then, the Maconie source would be referenced in full. Secondary Citations in Chicago With Chicago referencing, the correct approach depends on which version of the system youÃ¢â¬â¢re using and whether youÃ¢â¬â¢re citing or quoting a source. For authorÃ¢â¬âdate style referencing, when simply citing a source, you should add Ã¢â¬Å"cited inÃ¢â¬ to your in-text citations (weÃ¢â¬â¢ll use the Charles/Maconie example throughout for clarity): Charles (cited in Maconie 2013) praises Bootsy Collins. If you were quoting the same source, youÃ¢â¬â¢d use Ã¢â¬Å"quoted inÃ¢â¬ instead. YouÃ¢â¬â¢d also give a page number for where the quote appears in the secondary source: Charles (quoted in Maconie 2013, 34) describes Bootsy Collins as Ã¢â¬Å"the greatestÃ¢â¬ bass player of his time. A snappy dresser, too.(Photo: Jester Jay Goldman/flickr) The same Ã¢â¬Å"cited inÃ¢â¬ /Ã¢â¬ quoted inÃ¢â¬ distinction applies when using Chicago-style footnote citations, but you need to provide full publication information (and page numbers) for both sources: 1. C. Charles, A History of Funk and Soul (New York: PMP Publications, 1994), 216, quoted in S. Maconie, Musical Freaks (Chicago: PI Press, 2013), 34. Whichever system you use, list the secondary source (e.g., in the examples above, Maconie) in the reference list/bibliography. Secondary Citations in MLA MLA uses Ã¢â¬Å"qtd. inÃ¢â¬ (short for Ã¢â¬Å"quoted inÃ¢â¬ ) to indicate a secondary citation, such as in the following: Charles writes that Bootsy Collins would Ã¢â¬Å"put bass in your faceÃ¢â¬ (qtd. in Maconie 46). As with the other systems here, you should list the secondary source (i.e., the text youÃ¢â¬â¢ve been able to access) on the Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ page.
Monday, February 17, 2020
Noel Burch and Tom Gunning - Essay Example According to Burch, the Theory of Film Practice is at every point derived is based on the perception of film as something that develops not through the constraints and conventions of an industry, but rather, it originates on the opposition to them. Burch, in all his work, has seemed to dedicate himself into redefining the components of film forms or styles. Burch's perception on film viewing and film-making are both as parts of the same intrinsic process. He re-establishes the shot changeover as the foundation of formal articulation in the cinema. Burch's quest led him into discovering what he perceived as a Ã¢â¬Å"purer cinemaÃ¢â¬ which, in his point of view, is free of conservative ideologies. His Theory of Film of practice remains to be one of the main points in the study of criticisms in the Western film. In his book, Burch tackled various concepts such as the continuous and discontinuous forms of cutting as well as further investigating the various uses of off-screen space wh ich are defined and investigated extensively. Factors which he explored in the last seven chapters of his book included softness and sharpness of focus, lighting contrasts, moving and stationary images, long and short sequences, structural uses of sound, functions of chance as well as an interesting category which he designated as the Ã¢â¬Å"structures of aggression.Ã¢â¬ In Gunning's point-of-view, the general feel of narrative films gave audience the sense of being an unknown spectator of the film, generally watching. unknowing characters of each film